State law recognizes the vital role local governments play in the supply and affordability of housing. Each city in California is required to adopt a comprehensive, long term general plan for the physical development of the city. The Housing Element is one of the seven mandated elements of the local General Plan. Housing Element law, enacted in 1969, mandates that local governments adequately plan to meet the existing and projected housing needs of all economic segments of the community. The law acknowledges that, in order for the private market to adequately address housing needs and demand, local governments must adopt land use plans and regulatory systems which provide opportunities for, and do not unduly constrain, housing development. As a result, housing policy in the state rests largely upon the effective implementation of local general plans and, in particular, local housing elements. Housing Element law has recently been modified. Where it used to require Housing Elements to be updated every five (5) years, the new requirements have increased this to eight (8) years. This is provided that the local cities meet their requirements and adopt the Housing Element prior to October 15, 2013. The current planning period is 2014 through 2021.